CANDIDAL BALANITIS. DEFINITION. Balanitis refers to inflammation of the glans . The most common cause of balanitis is Candida albicans. In common usage, “balanitis” and “balanoposthitis” are interchangeable, although balanoposthitis occurs only in uncircumcised males. For the. Zoon balanitis (ZB) is one of the benign nonvenereal dermatoses, which presents as a solitary, persistent erythematous plaque usually on the glans penis.

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Some authors have found an association between ZB and erythroplasia balanopostittis Queyrat; while others believe that ZB can precede carcinoma of the penis, supposing that the carcinogenic changes may arise in the chronically inflamed mucosa of ZB.

In addition to this, it is rather very important to differentiate this lesion from its clinical equivocal lesions such as erythroplasia of Queyrat, infective and other inflammatory penile dermatoses, which has been discussed in this review. Petersen CS, Thomsen K. The diagnosis and management of nonvenereal diseases are always a tough challenge for the dermatologist due to lack of studies on its diagnostic criteria and standard treatment guidelines.

In addition, a case of lichen sclerosus et atrophicus developing in a patient of ZB after treatment with carbon dioxide CO 2 laser has also been reported. Report of balnaopostitis case and review of the literature. Author information Copyright balanolostitis License information Disclaimer.

Nikolowski W, Wiehl R. In other projects Wikimedia Commons. J Cutan Med Surg. Response to Trimovate cream. InZoon first recognized this entity blaanopostitis eight male patients with chronic balanitis. Successful treatment of Zoon’s balanitis with topical tacrolimus. Griseofulvin ineffective in balanitis circumscripta plasmacellularis. Furthermore, pimecrolimus leads to inhibition of histamine release by mast cells, which may result in improvement of the symptoms.


The clinical criteria given by Kumar et al. Balanitis Inflammation of the glans penis and the preputial mucosa of a circumcised penis Specialty Urology Balanitis candidiaica inflammation of the glans penis. An effective therapy for Zoon balanitis. Starritt E, Lee S. However, long-term controlled studies are needed to confirm its effect and to know the dose and duration of therapy for complete clearance in ZB [ Table 2 balanoppstitis. A dog with this condition behaves normally, with the exception of excessive licking at the prepuce, and a yellow green, pus -like discharge is usually present.

The clinical differentiation between ZB and its clinically equivocal dermatosis may be sometimes challenging. Plasma cell balanitis of zoon treated with topical tacrolimus 0. Treated successfully with dapsone.

Zoon balanitis: A comprehensive review

Reflectance confocal microscopy [ 25 ] Reflectance confocal microscopy RCM is an in vivo imaging method used to obtain morphologic information about both the architecture and single cells in the epidermis and superficial dermis by Vivascope Balanoposthitis is believed to have contributed to the decline to near-extinction of Gilbert’s potoroo.

Inflammation has many possible causes, including irritation by environmental substances, physical trauma, and infection such as bacterial, viral, or fungal. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

CS1 Spanish-language sources es Infobox medical condition new Articles containing Greek-language text Articles with references in external links Commons category link is on Wikidata. However, it is postulated that it acts via triggering the upregulation of cellular immunity which may overcome local response to some unknown causative agents. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Journal of Wildlife Diseases. An overview and role of histopathology.

It has been postulated that tacrolimus may affect the plasma cell response via its action on helper T-cells or a possible underlying T-cell dysfunction. Hence, following diagnostic methods are helpful to make a definite diagnosis of ZB:.


Case series and review of the literature. Fusidic acid shares a similar molecular structure with corticosteroid, thus having both anti-inflammatory and antibiotic activity.

YAG laser to produce complete resolution in ZB. Initial treatment in adults often involves simply pulling back the foreskin and cleaning the penis. No evidence of human papillomavirus infection in balanitis circumscripta plasmacellularis Zoon.

Zoon balanitis: A comprehensive review

Changes in dermal vasculature include vascular dilatation with singular vertical or oblique orientation of proliferated individual vessels, which is characteristic of ZB. Torchia D, Cappugi P. Diagnosis may include careful identification of the cause with the aid of a good patient history, swabs and cultures, and pathological examination of a biopsy. Indian J Sex Transm Dis. There is a scarcity of published data regarding the incidence and prevalence of ZB.

Erbium-YAG-laser treatment of balanoposthitis chronica circumscripta benigna plasmacellularis Zoon. It may be associated with siderophages i. Circumscribed plasma cell balanoposthitis and conjunctivitis in the same patient.

Plasma cell balanitis and vulvitis of Zoon. An earlier study by Mallon et al. In addition, other possible causes of ZB that have been described in the literature include chronic infection with Mycobacterium smegmatis and human papillomaviruses HPV.

J Am Acad Dermatol. Erythroplasia of Queyrat of the glans penis on a background of Zoon’s plasma cell balanitis. There is only one case report of Cndidiasica treated with oral dapsone without any side effect although the mechanism of action was not clear.